© 2022 Laura Vladimirovna TURARBEKOVA

2022 – № 1(23)


Citation link:

Turarbekova L.V. (2022) Vopros o kiborge [The Cyborg Question], Meditsinskaya antropologiya i bioetika [Medical Anthropology and Bioethics], № 1(23).

Laura Vladimirovna Turarbekovna

Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, PhD,

Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Philosophy and Political Science

Al-Farabi Kazakh National University


* The article was prepared according to the project “616599-EPR-1-2020-1- KZ-EPPJMO-MODULE “Digital Humanity in the Republic of Kazakhstan: local solutions to global problems” (2020-2023)” programs of the European Union Jean Monnet.

Keywords: cyborg, cyborgization, technique and technology, man and humanity, machine, technical existentialism, second-level transcendence, humanism

Abstract: The question of cyborg is really a question about a person, his future and present, in the context of the increasing influence of modern technologies on the biological and social nature of man. The description of some anthropological and medical aspects of the cyborgization process (from the implantation of microchips into human organs to the complete replacement of some organs with artificial ones or even up to the creation of additional organs) is accompanied by a philosophical analysis of texts by authors such as M. Heidegger, J. Simondon, D. Haraway and others who have devoted their reflection to the problems of modern technologies. Technology, which inevitably accompanies humanity throughout the history of its existence, puts a person face to face with a radically Other – an inhuman machine. Whether such an opposition will lead to the creation of a new cyborg ethic or to the destruction of man and his replacement by a machine is the question that the author of the article is trying to answer.


Berdjaev, N.A. (1933) Chelovek i mashina (problema sociologii i metafiziki tehniki) [Man and machine], Put’, № 38, s. 3–37.

Denisova, I. (2021), Sdelaj menja tochno [Do Me Exactly], M.: Individuum.

Kozhevnikova, M. (2017), Gibridy i himery cheloveka i zhivotnogo: ot mifologii k biotehnologii (Human-Animal Hybrids and Chimeras: From Mythology to Biotechnology), М.: IFRAN.

Kozhevnikova, M. (2021), Antropologiya za predelamichelovecheskogo: postgumanisticheskie vliyaniya [Anthropology beyond Human: Post-Humanistic Influences], Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, 2021, no. 1, pp. 5–12.

Rossiiskaia antropologiia i «ontologicheskii povorot» [Russian Anthropology and the “Ontological Turn”] (2017). Ed. by S.V. Sokolovskii. Moskow: IEA RAS, (Innovations in Anthropology, Vol. 2).

Sokolovskiy, S.V. (2018), Somatotehniki I tehnomorfizmy: k probleme antropologii cheloveka v tehnosrede [Somatotechniques, Technomorphisms and the Issue of the Human-in-Techno-Environment] Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, no 6, pp. 5–11.

Sokolovskiy S.V. (2020), Kiborgi v kiberprostranstve: sovremennye issledovaniya v oblasti kiber- i cifrovoy antropologii (Cyborgs in Cyberspace: Modern Research in Cyber and Digital Anthropology), Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, №1, pp. 5–22.

Heidegger, M. (1993) Vremja i bytie: Stat’i i vystuplenija [Time and Being: papers and speeches] (per. s nem. V.V. Bibihina), M.: Respublika.

Haidegger, M. (1998), Prolegomeny k istorii ponyatiya vremeni, [Prolegomena to the history of the concept of time], Tomsk: izdatel’stvo «Vodolej».

Harbisson, N. (2021), Nil Harbisson – ob iskusstve i tehnologiyah (interviyu) [Neil Harbisson on Art and Technology (interview)], Invest-Forsait, 23/06/2021 (

Yudin B.G. (2007), Sotvorenie trasncheloveka [The Creation of transhuman], Vestnik Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, t.77, № 6, pp. 520–527.

Audouse, F. (2002) Leroi-Gourhan, a philosopher of technique and evolution, Journal of archaeological research, vol.10, N 4, p. 277–306.

Bostrom, N. (2019), The Vulnerable World Hypothesis, Global Policy, Volume 10, Issue 4 (

Chalmers, D. (2022), Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy, W. W. Norton (US), Allen Lane (UK)

Clark, A. (2003), Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence, New-York: Oxford University Press.

Clark, A. (2007), Re-inventing ourselves: the plasticity of embodiment, sensing, and mind, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 32(3), p. 263–82.

Clynes, Manfred E. and Kline, Nathan S. (1960), Cyborgs and Space (Reprinted with permission from Astronautics, September 1960) (

Dastur, F. (2006) Heidegger, penseur de la modernité, de la technique et de l’éthique, Belin, «Po&sie», N 1, p. 34-41.

Foucault, M. (1966) Les mots et les choses, Paris: Gallimard.

Haraway, D. (1991) A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century, in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, New York; Routledge, p.149-181.

Latour, B. (2010) Prendre le pli des techniques, Réseaux, vol.5, p.11–31.

Levinas, E. (1972) Humanisme de l’autre homme, Paris: Fata Morgana.

Léroi-Gourhan, A. (1964) Technique et langage (Le Geste et la Parole, vol. 1), Paris, éd. Albin Michel, coll. « Sciences d’aujourd’hui ».

Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1971). Evolution et techniques I–L’Homme et la matière, Albin Michel, Paris., p. 39–40

Manfred E. Clynes, Nathan S. Kline (1960) Cyborgs and Space, in Astronautics, September ( (16.04.2022).

Peoc’h, M. & Druel, G. (2017). Body-hacking et logique supplétive : un mode contemporain de traitement du corps. Cliniques méditerranéennes, 96, 133–145.

Schneider, S. (2022) Future with conscious androids requires serious ethical consideration, CBC Radio · Posted: Jan 07, 2022 3:42 PM ET | Last Updated: January 8 ( (16.04.2022)

Simondon, G. (1958) Du mode d’existence des objets techniques, Paris : Aubier-Montaigne.